We all are aware of the fact that recently, the Taliban has taken over almost every part of Afghanistan. It is surely going to impact Asia on a larger scale as Russia, China, India, America, Iran all have their interests linked with Afghanistan. To understand the holistic impact of the Taliban, we have to know everything from the beginning.
Almost 100 years ago, in the year 1919 Afghanistan got independence and the king rule was imposed by the Shah dynasty. The last emperor of the Shah dynasty was “Mohammad Zahir Shah”. Once he went to Italy in 1973 for treatment of his disease, as soon as he left the country, the Commander of Afghanistan army “Daud Khan” coup over and declared himself as the Prime Minister of Afghanistan and also stated that the country will now run properly according to the constitution. People agreed as they thought that it will be better than the king’s rule. But in 1977, when the new constitution was imposed, it has many unfair points like, he declared a single party and said that I will be the only person who will act as Prime Minister, Defense Minister, Foreign Minister, and everything will be handled by him. Against these rules of Mohammad Zahir Khan, people started a protest which is also known as the “Saur Revolution” in 1978 and this protest was led by “Noor Mohammad Tariki”. This protest was successful and Noor Mohammad became the new President of Afghanistan. As Noor Mohammad was supported by USSR (mainly Russia that believes in communism) so the new president started modernization and developing the country on the thinking of the USSR and made many schools, colleges, technical universities, hospitals and also focused on Women Education and also said that Hijab is not compulsory for girls and they are free to wear what they want.
But, most of the population covers Muslims so they were against this decision. At the same time, for socialist reform he passed a bill stating that some piece of land will be taken away from the very rich people and will be distributed amongst the poor people of the country, this decision was also opposed by the Muslims of Afghanistan as they believe that it is Allah who makes people rich and poor and not the humans.
In the same period, there was a cold war between Russia and America to become powerful, to destabilize Afghanistan, America provoked the Muslims of Afghanistan and created a group called “Mujahidin” and give them money to fight with Russia and America also blend-in the foreign minister of Afghanistan (Hafizuddin Ameen) with the help of CIA. Then America told Hafizuddin to do modernization at a faster rate so it can become easy to provoke the Muslim population of Afghanistan and it caused the feeling of revenge in the Muslims as they thought that it is the planning of Russia to finish the ideology of their religion.
America also started funding Mujahiddins and giving them weapons to fight against Russia. These Mujahidin were trained in Pakistan for terrorism and Pakistan helped America to supply money and weapons to the Muslims of Afghanistan. Along with this, America also sent some troops to Afghanistan from Saudi-Arab which were lead by “Osama-Bin-Laden” and their only motive was to kick out USSR from Afghanistan. Students are known as “Talib” in the local language of Afghanistan, America also started provoking the Talibs. One of the students named “Umar” was of very fierce ideology and he joined Osama in his purpose.
Once, Noor Mohammad went to Russia to understand the situation in the meeting, where Russia suggested him to remove Hafizuddin from his post because he is working for America, somehow, this news was leaked and as soon as Noor Mohammad landed back in Afghanistan, he along with his family were killed and Hafizuddin Ameen became the new President.
Now, because USSR (Russia) and Afghanistan were sharing borders at that time, and Russia doesn’t want any of America’s agents to lead Afghanistan as it will increase the danger for them. So, as a result, Russia attacked Afghanistan on 25th December 1979 with their army and killed Hafizuddin Ameen, and demolished his government. But slowly the Mujahiddins proves to be stronger than the Russian army because they were funded, armed, trained and supported by America and with time, Russia deployed their Air Force also, but Afghanistan being an area full of mountains and hence it was not easy for the Air force to operate effectively and on the other hand, America also provided the terrorists the “Stringer Missile” to gun down Russian aircraft.
As a result, Russia called back its troops on 15th February 1989 (after almost 10 years). In this, approximately 15,000 soldiers of the USSR were killed. After Russia, there happened a civil war in Afghanistan and the normal people of Afghanistan now wanted a leader who can lead them in a great way, they also found that students have fought prominently with the USSR (students are called Talibs in the local language of Afghanistan). And as we already discussed that the most powerful Talib was “Umar” and he was made the leader of Talib. As a result, he established an organization named “Taliban”. This organization slowly defeated all the small groups that were causing chaos and fights in Afghanistan and became the only organization to rule there.
Because of some reason, Osama-Bin-Laden who was sent to Afghanistan by America had some conflicts with America due to some clashes whose reason was attacking Iraq by America and Osama did the well known “9/11 attack on America” in the year 2001. After which he ran away and went underground in Afghanistan and because Afghanistan gave shelter to Osama, America started a war with them just like Russia and deployed their troops there and the fight kept on going for 20 long years and finally, in 2021 the troops of America were called back to their country.
But, the guns, missiles, and other arm materials were left in Afghanistan only which are under the Taliban now, and hence they have become more stringer now. And with the help of these weapons, as soon as the American Army left Afghanistan, they started to encircle the whole country and on 15th August 2021, Afghanistan is completely under the Taliban.
Russia has accepted the Taliban and cleared that they will not jump into this matter until and unless the Taliban do something to Russia. China, as we all know has no fixed foreign policy so they support anyone from whom they can get the benefit. Afghanistan has a huge amount of minerals like Lithium, iron ore because of which China doesn’t oppose the Taliban.
Pakistan’s whole intention to support the Taliban is to do Ghazwa-Ae-Hind. India has invested around 4 Billion dollars for the development of Afghanistan (the 2 biggest dams of Afghanistan were funded by India and also the Parliament of Afghanistan). India also purchased helicopters (including Mi-21) from Russia and gave them to Afghanistan as a gift to make their Air force a bit strong. Along with this, Afghanistan soldiers are trained in the “Indian Military Academy” with the Indian soldiers. So, it is a drawback for India that Afghanistan will be controlled by the Taliban from now.